Today, Carnival in Trinidad represents a beautiful mixture of upbeat music, vibrant costume, and joyful celebration, all rooted in the history and culture of the region. Trinidad Carnival is considered to be one of the best Carnivals in the world, open to anyone who wishes to attend. However, Carnival was not always as open and free as we now know it to be. From up untilTrinidad was one of the many colonies of the old Spanish Empire. It allowed for mass immigration of people, primarily from the French Antilles, namely Grenada, Martinique, Guadeloupe, and Dominica, to settle on the island.
Any free person of the Roman Catholic faith who was willing to swear allegiance to the Spanish was granted the right to move to the island, with promises of several acres of land given to said immigrants, depending on their race, social class, and number of slaves they owned.
Inthe British invaded Trinidad and colonised it, and proceeded to take over in the same manner as they did with Jamaica and Barbados. Carnival is a Lenten celebration, and during Lent in the years toit was celebrated exclusively by the white upper class; coloureds gens de couleur libres and Africans, free or not, were all forbidden from engaging in Carnival-related activities.
The emancipation of enslaved Africans in put an end to this, allowing all people to celebrate Carnival in whichever way they saw fit.Dr suzan bekir
Celebrations in the pre-emancipation era were a lot different to what we now recognise as Trinidad Carnival. After emancipation, the Afro-Creole population, with their regained freedom, effectively reclaimed the celebration, which was clearly a glorification of domination of the subjugated enslaved. It was renamed Canboulay ; originally observed on August 1 st commemorating emancipation for its first ten years before being moved to the pre-Lenten period, Canboulay involved revellers carrying burning sugar canes, engaging in masquerade dances, and following numerous other festive activities.
The practices of the Western colonial forces were almost completely erased; West African instruments and dances replaced those of European influence. The most notable introduction to Canboulay was the Kalendaa stick dance usually performed by men, which consisted of a mock stick-fight between two in a circle.
Each would be equipped with a boi of three-and-a-half to four feet long. Each stick-fighter represented a different social group among the revellers, and each group was led by a so-called chantuellea female singer, accompanied by a chorus of women, whose purpose was to intimidate and distract the fighter on the opposing side, as well as to galvanise the spirit of their own man.
This grouping of people marching with musical instruments was the predecessor to the organised Carnival bands we see today. Furthermore, the African population often gathered in so-called Kaiso tentsinside which a chantwell would lead the congregation in song, as a way for the people to express their inner feelings; a practice whose roots as a cultural celebration are undeniably West African usually attributed to the people of the former Kingdom of Kongo.
These melodies, coupled with the extensive use of varied instruments, served as the predecessor to calypso and soca music. Depiction of Kalenda actually set in Dominica. As one can imagine, the British authorities were not pleased with this newly-found African expression. With French power in the decline, and with the British determined to consolidate and widen the influence of its Empire, they tried to do everything in their power to suppress the freedom of expression of Black people in Trinidad.
Canboulay and its attendees were therein vilified by contemporary French and British media, as well as the British colonial government, which all referred to the celebrations under a new term, jamette. These people predominantly lived in East Port of Spain, which was unfortunately plagued with high levels of crime, disease, unemployment, and several other unfavourable circumstances in the area, due to the socio-economic factors faced by the former enslaved people.
While many other Anglophone islands in the Caribbean saw much less derision of African freedom of expression, an important difference to note here would be the proximity of the Black population to white people; both co-resided in Port of Spain.
Emancipated African people elsewhere in the Caribbean generally lived in isolation from the white colonisers.PetersburgRussian composer noted particularly for his opera Boris Godunov final version first performedhis songs, and his piano piece Pictures from an Exhibition According to his autobiographical sketch, written inMussorgsky learned about Russian fairy tales from his nurse. In August his father took Modest and his other son, Filaret, to St.Unusual crochet afghan patterns
Petersburgwhere Modest attended the Peter-Paul School in preparation for a military career. Petersburg Conservatory. In Mussorgsky entered the School for Cadets of the Guard. Although not the most industrious of students, he gave proof of tremendous curiosity and wide-ranging intellectual interests. During this same period he came to know Aleksandr Borodina fellow officer who was to become another important Russian composer.
Borodin has provided a very vivid picture of the musician:. There was something absolutely boyish about Mussorgsky; he looked like a real second-lieutenant of the picture books … a touch of foppery, unmistakable but kept well within bounds.
His courtesy and good breeding were exemplary. All the women fell in love with him. During the winter of a regimental comrade introduced Mussorgsky into the home of the Russian composer Aleksandr Dargomyzhsky. At one of the musicales there, Mussorgsky discovered the music of the seminal Russian composer Mikhail Glinkaand this quickened his own Russophile inclinations. Through Dargomyzhsky, Mussorgsky met another composer, Mily Balakirevwho became his teacher.
Since the death of their father inthe Mussorgsky brothers had seen their poorly administered patrimony decrease substantially. With the freeing of the serfs init vanished. Having decided to devote himself to music, Modest Mussorgsky had quit the army three years earlier and since had been working as a civil servant in the Ministry of Communications.
His distressing financial troubles date from that time, and he had to seek the help of moneylenders. Another work dating from this time is the symphonic poem Ivanova noch na Lysoy gore ; Night on Bald Mountain. In he began his great work Boris Godunov to his own libretto based on the drama by Aleksandr Pushkin. The first version, completed in Decemberwas rejected by the advisory committee of the imperial theatres because it lacked a prima donna role. In response, the composer subjected the opera to a thorough revision and in put the finishing touches to the second version, adding the roles of Marina and Rangoni as well as several new episodes.
The first production of Boris took place on February 8,at St. Petersburg and was a success. Inafter the death of his mother, he lived with his brother, then shared a small flat with the Russian composer Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov untilwhen his colleague married. Left very much alone, Mussorgsky began to drink to excess, although the composition of the opera Khovanshchina perhaps offered some distraction left unfinished at his death, this opera was completed by Rimsky-Korsakov.
Mussorgsky then found a companion in the person of a distant relative, Arseny Golenishchev-Kutuzov. At that time Mussorgsky was haunted by the spectre of death—he himself had only seven more years to live. The death of another friend, the painter Victor Hartmann, inspired Mussorgsky to write the piano suite Kartinki s vystavki Pictures from an Exhibition ; orchestrated in by the French composer Maurice Ravel.A fire at the Ring Theater in Vienna, Austria, kills at least people and injures hundreds more on December 8, The luxurious, ornate theater hosted the most popular performances of the day.
According to the custom of the time, the wealthy theater patrons who sat up front near the stage did not arrive until the last minute so the two balconies at the Ring filled up first. It was about p. He inadvertently also lit some prop clouds that were hanging over the stage.
Worse, the stage managers panicked and shut off the gas totally, cutting off light in the theater. At this point, situation dissolved into chaos. The balconies became clogged as the exits jammed. A fire brigade brought ladders, but they were too short to reach even the first balcony.
Despite an attempt to use a curtain to create a net, some people jumped from the balconies, not only killing themselves but also crushing people on the ground floor. Finally, safety nets were brought in that allowed people to jump from the balconies, saving as many as people, according to witnesses.
The Royal Family of Austria arrived at the theater as the disaster was ending and immediately began collecting relief funds for the victims and their families.
Crown Prince Rudolf was particularly emotional, crying upon seeing the hundreds of lifeless bodies. The estimated death toll was somewhere between and people.
The remainder of the structure was demolished and replaced with the Suhnhof building. But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us! He was 73 years old. Kahn and his assistants built more than 2, buildings in all, mostly for Ford and General Motors.
According to his obituary in The New At a summit meeting in Washington, D. Previous agreements had merely been attempts by the two Cold War adversaries to limit Clinton said he hoped the agreement would encourage other nations to work toward a broader world-trade pact. Named Mary, she was the only surviving child of her father and ascended to the Scottish throne when the king died just six days after her birth. John Lennon, a former member of the Beatles, the rock group that transformed popular music in the s, is shot and killed by an obsessed fan in New York City.
The year-old artist was entering his luxury Manhattan apartment building when Mark David Chapman shot him four Sign up now to learn about This Day in History straight from your inbox.
The Bears, coached by George Halas, brought a record to their regular-season meeting withJan 1, The Renaissance was a time for 'rebirth', 'revival'. Music was influenced greatly by the Pope and the Church, the architecture of the buildings influenced the sounds of music.
The rise of humanistic thought; the recovery of the literary and artistic heritage of ancient Greece and Rome; increased innovation and discovery; the growth of commercial enterprise all had impacts on the art and music. Popular composers are Palestrina, Tallis, Victoria, and Dowland. The baroque period saw the creation of functional tonality.
During the period, composers and performers used more elaborate musical ornamentation, made changes in musical notation, and developed new instrumental playing techniques.Data quality check using python
Baroque music expanded the size, range, and complexity of instrumental performance, and also established opera as a musical genre. Many musical terms and concepts from this era are still in use today.
The "Composer of the Era" goes to J. S Bach. Classical music has a lighter, clearer texture than Baroque music and is less complex. It is mainly homophonic — melody above chordal accompaniment but counterpoint is by no means forgotten, especially later in the period.
Composers: Mozart and Beethoven. Romantic music attempted to increase emotional expression and power to describe deeper truths or human feelings, while preserving but in many cases extending the formal structures from the classical period. The subject matter in the new music was now not only purely abstract, but also frequently drawn from other art-form sources such as literature, or history historical figures or nature itself.
Composers to listen to are: Schubert, Schumann. This is the period of 'isms'. The period can be divded into different styles or genres.Ls7 torque cam
Late Romantic, Neoclassicism, Jazz-influence. Art and music movements dominated the scene Impressionism, Modernism, Expressionalism, Minimalism, Surrealism and more. Linea del tiempo del modelo de prescindencia.C openxml read excel to datatable
The Evolution of the Television. Historia de la maquina de coser Alejandra de la cruz hernadez.Here's our quick guide to the best family-friendly movies and shows you can stream right now. Watch now. A reclusive, retired professor is faced with confronting modernity when a group of vulgar youths, led by an obnoxious marchesa, take up residence in his unused upper residence. While recovering in Venice, sickly Composer Gustav von Aschenbach becomes dangerously fixated with teenager Tadzio.
The film tells the story of Ludwigs relationship with the actor Josef Kainz an actor famous at the time for his voice during a cruise in The actor being required to recreate the personages he plays in the theatre from a story which takes place around the lake, at the actual locations around the lake. The actor arrives pompous with the thought of being asked to personally accompany Ludwig. The wind is taken out of his sails a little when the butler tells him that the king did not invite Josef Kainz but the personages he plays.
1884 in music
Written by M. I found this movie quite interesting, but I didn't like Helmut Bergers effeminate behaviour, was the King really like this? Or did they just put him into the "when a man is interested in other men he is effeminate" stereotype.
Also, I found it quite ridiculous that in the movie the king had no beard, but in the end when the photograph of the real king taken with that actor he had a beard Sign In. Keep track of everything you watch; tell your friends. Full Cast and Crew. Release Dates. Official Sites.
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1881 in music
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Rate This. In Ludwig of Bavaria goes on a cruise on a Swiss lake. He takes with him a famous actor, Josef Kainz, to act out the scenes from a story which took place on the lake, at the actual locations. Directors: Donatello DubiniFosco Dubini. Added to Watchlist. History Victorian Era. European Royalty.From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Timeline of music in the United States To — — — — — —present Music history of the United States Colonial era — to the Civil War — During the Civil War — Late 19th century — Early 20th century — 40s and 50s — 60s and 70s — 80s to the present This is a timeline of music in the United States from to The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music.
Zinck, "Popular Music of the Parlor and Stage", pgs. Dwight The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music. Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World.
A Hundred Years of Music in America. Chicago: G. Black Music Research Journal. Burnin and Susan Oehler. Liebling The Viking Press. Archived from the original on Retrieved Electroacoustic music. New Grove Dictionary of American Music. Pruett and Pamela Bristah. New Grove Dictionary of Music. Wisconsin Public Television. See also reference to "A Perfect Day" published by Bond in infra.
Retrieved July 9, The Black Perspective in Music.
Kansas Historical Society. February Archived from the original on November 12, Retrieved February 12, Cipolla and Raoul F. Categories : Timelines of American music 19th century in music 20th century in music s in music s in music s in American music s in American music s in American music s in American music.
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Become a SMH member today. NEWSA-1472 - Remove after 1. I've never seen one like President Trump Video captures dramatic arrest of Sydney man Donald Trump's week of wins Why private schools should be banned The Age Cup of sorrow: the brutal reality of Australia's franchise king I study liars. I've never seen one like President Trump Man killed after couple walking their dog hit by car Bitcoin tumbles after dramatic gains Gay celebrant no longer forced to say those 'galling, terrible' words Brisbane Times Cup of sorrow: the brutal reality of Australia's franchise king Violent storms hit Gold Coast, Scenic Rim with similar severe weather possible for Brisbane I study liars.
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